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Possible Interaction: Betaine and Urea





Research Papers that Mention the Interaction

Mixtures of urea with TMAO, and to a lesser extent with betaine , exhibit a counteractive effect.
Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP  •  2013  |  View Paper
It is believed that the deleterious effect of urea is counteracted by methylamine osmolytes ( glycine betaine and glycerophosphocholine) present in kidney cells.
PloS one  •  2013  |  View Paper
The usual explanation is that the methylamines found in the renal medulla, namely glycerophosphocholine and betaine , have actions opposite to those of urea and thus counteract its effects.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  •  1999  |  View Paper
For both proteins, we observed that (i) glycine betaine and myo-inositol provide perfect counteraction … 2:1 molar ratio of urea to osmolyte, i.e., denaturing effect of 2M urea is 100% neutralized … 1M of glycine betaine (or myo-inositol), and (ii) sorbitol fails to refold urea denatured proteins.
International journal of biological macromolecules  •  2018  |  View Paper
Urea also enhances the accessibility of thiol groups, promotes aggregation and decreases the α‐helix content of S1, effects that are also counteracted by betaine.
The FEBS journal  •  2008  |  View Paper
For example, glycine betaine counteracts urea denaturation of tubulin but promotes denaturation of S228N λ-repressor and carbonic anhydrase.
However, glycine betaine significantly shifts the transition to higher urea concentrations.
Journal of Biological Chemistry  •  2003  |  View Paper
Although betaine counteracts effects of urea on macromolecules in vitro and protects renal cells from urea in tissue culture, renal cells accumulate GPC rather than betaine in response to high urea both in vivo and in tissue culture.
The American journal of physiology  •  1998  |  View Paper
Two types of organic … effects of high intracellular urea concentrations: … [ betaine and glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC)], which accumulate in renal medullary cells during prolonged periods of antidiuresis and cytoprotective heat shock proteins (… which (HSPs 27 and 72) is much higher in the inner medulla than in the iso-osmotic renal cortex.
Pflügers Archiv  •  1998  |  View Paper
The generally accepted explanation is the counteracting osmolytes hypothesis, which holds that methylamines, such as glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC) and glycine betaine (betaine), found in the renal medulla stabilize biological macromolecules and oppose the effects of urea.
The American journal of physiology  •  1997  |  View Paper
Betaine was previously shown to counteract the effect of urea on enzymes in vitro and to protect renal cells in tissue culture from harmful effects of high urea.
We find that urea increases the Km (as previously observed), that betaine and GPC decrease it, and that the increase caused by urea is counteracted by betaine or by GPC.
Kidney international. Supplement  •  1996  |  View Paper
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